Well, you have to forgive people for asking. First of all, lots of people have migraine, and lots of people get Alzheimer’s Disease. Naturally, there’s going to be people who for years had migraine, and then developed Alzeimer’s – not because of any connection, just because of the numbers.
Of course, that’s not the only reason people ask. It’s also because some of the signs of Alzheimer’s are similar to migraine symptoms (and, of course, the most well-known migraine symptom is headache!).
For example, disorientation, trouble with language, changes in mood, problems with thinking in general – though these symptoms usually come and go with migraine, they can be serious enough to make you wonder if it’s the start of something degenerative.
And, in fact, migraine and Alzheimer’s share some comorbid conditions – that is, conditions that go along with both. For example, depression and hypertension.
So doctor’s will smile and assure you that there’s no connection – it’s natural to think there is, but there isn’t. Or… is there?
Alzheimer’s and Headache: Linked?
It’s true that very little study has been done specifically into links between Alzheimer’s and headaches or migraine. After all, saying that Alzheimer’s patients have headaches is almost like saying that people with headaches get colds – of course, some have both.
But similarities between the two diseases does get notice, and sometimes they are studied together (see for example Age and Aging 2002, and Huntington Medical Research Institute: Using Lipidomics to Find Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s and Migraine Study Participants).
But in 2009, an interesting paper published online showed some intriguing links. Written by Amber Nicole Byrd BS, RRT and Shane Keene MBA, MS, RRT-NPS, CPFT, RPSGT, the paper was entitled Migraine Headache: A Precursor to Alzheimer’s Disease?.
The paper did not find that both had the same cause, or that one caused another. But what it did show was that research on migraine and Alzheimer’s continually touches on the same things – much more often than you would expect.
It’s not just surface level (symptoms). Alzheimer’s and migraine are both neurological, and it’s almost certain that both have a genetic basis. There are also signs of neurodegeneration in both, including white matter lesions.
Cardiovascular disease, such as transient ischemic attacks, are also comorbid in both Alzheimer’s and migraine. Vascular inflammation is also common in both.
Women are also more likely to have either disease. Again, is this just a numbers game? Well, levels of estrogen have been a suggested link in both Alzheimer’s and migraine. Hormone replacement therapy has been suggested as a possible treatment or preventative for both.
Estrogen levels are also related to serotonin levels; serotonin levels are a historic link to migraine, and a suspected link to Alzheimer’s as well.
Glutamate levels are likely to be increased in migraine patients and Alzheimer’s patients. We’ve talked about treatments for migraine based on glutamate levels recently.
Another hot topic in migraine research is calcium channels. Recent research has suggested this as a basic mechanism of Alzheimer’s as well.
Is all this just because we’re looking at two neurological diseases? Or is there a closer link? The authors of the paper call for further research, and there does seem to be enough evidence to make it worthwhile. To quote:
In conclusion, there are many factors that are common among sufferers of Alzheimer’s disease and those who suffer from migraine attacks. These commonalities may suggest that those who suffer from migraine attacks in adolescence and adulthood (especially women) may be likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease as they age due to genetic, pathological and chemical similarities in the progression of each disorder. Findings of an association between the two disease processes could help lead to earlier diagnosis of AD. Early diagnosis can help reduce or delay some of Alzheimer’s most devastating effects. The intent of this paper is to prod further research on the possibility that migraine may be a predisposing aspect of Alzheimer’s disease.
For now, your doctor is right. There is no evidence of a direct link between Alzheimer’s and headache or migraine – and no reason to be concerned that migraine is a risk factor more important than the commonly known risk factors for Alzheimer’s (such as age, family history, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and diabetes).
However, more research may be helpful to understand the underlying factors in both diseases, and the treatments for both. For certain patients with one or the other, the connection may turn out to be very important.
And if you do have any symptoms that may indicate Alzeimer’s – and they aren’t going away – be sure to talk to your doctor.